The main point of the article is to study and address the need of a methodological approach to the changing climate in global education.
The Socio-cultural theory is the pedagogical approach to the growing market driven education systems and demand for ethnically diverse classrooms as well as work places.
In today’s world, it is not uncommon to transfer information from one side of the globe to another, or to conduct classes on a global scale with students in various countries. This paper will explain the main hypothesis of cultural dimensions, and the application of Socio-cultural method to the meet the growing demand for diversity around the world.
What is Socio-cultural theory, Owen (2005) states a central hypothesis underpins this theory of human development whereby higher order functions develop out of the social interaction of an individual with the external social world (Tharp & Gallimore, 1988) that includes people, objects, and events in the environment (Kublin et al., 1998). In other words, human development is essentially cultural and the conceptual application how can it have an impact (p. 196).
In fact, Vygotskys’ Socio-cultural theory like Karl Marxs’ dialectical materialism observes that human being, respond to objectivity and the surroundings produce culture which acts as stimuli for human desires. Humans’ process reality from material things around them, thus the present and the future can explained by set of principles already set in place. In addition, John Dewys’ “Third philosophy” conceptualizes that human beings receive knowledge and information from active participation in their environment. In each theory mentioned above, human beings are at the center, and they act as change agents in their environment. They are not guided by a metaphysical variable (Campball, 2015).
What evidence has the writers presented in the articles to substantiate Socio-cultural theory as the answer creating a plural classroom? In the case of EUS students in the United Arab Emirate many of the students representing regions from Middle East, Russia, Europe, and Africa were tested in reading levels in English at graduate levels. The student’s age ranges were from 18- 30 years old, their skills in literacy and oral academics in graduate levels provided information indicating they were well rounded in some areas, they were deficit in others (Owen, 198).
This type of information was gathered by mixed demographics of people. The people tested were students from around the world. Standardized testing methods were used to collect the necessary data used to gage the academic levels of the students. A range of metacognitive and cognitive skills is displayed, but is often limited. There are also a variety of student expectations about their own role, and the role of the teacher (Owen, 198).
Teaching in qualitative methods was conducted in periods of one-and-a-half teaching hours and one-and-a-half hours of seminars each week. In practice this means two teaching lessons/lectures and a two-hour seminar each week. During the lessons, the teacher played an active part, introducing topics to the students. During the seminars, the teacher functioned as a facilitator while the students were active, presenting material, carrying out group discussions or working on written assignments (Postholm, 231).
The methodology used to collect empirical data, students were asked to find common interest among themselves. Based on their common interest, ten groups were formed to assess information that came from different types of studies. The other groups assignment was to present information in a forum type setting for future discussion. The socio-cultural theory is well at play the object of using students from various parts of the world illustrates that the experiences of the students was taken into consideration (Postholm, 231).
Harre’ developed his analysis based on the Vygotsky theoretical thesis socio-cultural as the bases for change to the way teachers’ relationship toward advanced learning themselves. As such, the core assumptions of the model emphasize the functional interdependence of individual and collective learning processes, and include particular attention to the process of “mediation” of learning through the appropriation and transformation of conceptual and material tools. Prior uses of this framework, termed the “Vygotsky Space” (Gavelek & Raphael, 1996; McVee, Dunsmore, & Gavelek, 2005), have focused on analysis of the ways in which individual learning and development is constructed through a process of internalization and transformation of cultural tools as individuals participate in social practice (Peck, Gallucci, Sloan &Lippincott).
Here again, the processes of the individual collecting information though his/her environment. The framework is based on teachers’ stimuli and their surroundings to collect data and make the necessary changes in relationships between collective learning and one’s social environment The interactions between these dimensions are conceptualized as four phases of a process through which cultural practices are taken up by individuals (appropriation), adapted and changed in the context of individual needs and uses (transformation), then externalized (publication) in ways that may be negotiated and eventually taken up by others (conventionalization)(Peck, Gallucci, Sloan & Lippincott).
The key lessons from the articles are clear, the role that a student, teacher, or administers environment plays in their formation of reality is far more important than any metaphysical application can offer. This also leads to a more objective outlook by some practitioner. There are other limitations that come up in the work. Several limitations to our analysis should be made explicit. Perhaps the most important of these is the manifestly positive and productive nature of individual and collective learning processes we have used as contexts for our analysis Learning and change are not inherently positive, of course (Peck, Gallucci, Sloan & Lippincott).
Another questions arise from the research, the Although we chose to focus on what we considered to be useful and productive examples of individual and organizational learning in the context of pressures for change in teacher educations programs, the underlying theoretical model of learning and change could be usefully employed to examine innovations intended to achieve a wide variety of goals, including those which contest the values and initiatives of policy makers (Peck, Gallucci, Sloan & Lippincott).
Is socio-cultural relevant to making much needed structural changes in education? The reliance of social oriented development is essential to the framework of this philosophy. As a result of this theory, it seems as if the individual is trapped to his or hers owns senses. The student or educator cannot use their imagination or personal creativity in the process.
The work of educating African-American males can rely on the historical analysis of the Black experience. I closer look at Black experience can offer many answer to the current condition of “failure factories” schools that are experiencing massive drop-outs and heavy suspension rates among African-American males. This analysis is not limited to just the Black experience, but many other investigators can find lingering question that may plague many other troubled demographics.
All of the information was well written; however, for the lay public the readings are very complex if someone were looking to find simply answers. In order for people to find interest in solving their own problems, then information should be readily available to all, not to a select intellectual group of people.
Campbell, James. Value Inquiry Book Series. 2015, Vol. 285, p187-196. 10p.
Owen, H. (2005). Socio-cultural theory- An interpretive framework for computer assisted language learning? Enhancing Learning & Teaching. p195-214, 20p.
Peck, C.A., Gallucci, C., Sloan, T., & Lippincott, A. (2009). Organizational learning and program renewal in teacher education: A socio-culturaltheory of learning, innovation and change. Educational Research Review. 4(1):16-25.
Postholm, M.B. (2007). Teaching and learning in a university classroom: A Norwegian case study on students’Higher Education in Europe, Vol. 32, No. 2/3.
Edited by Zekey